Krishnarjuna Bankala, Ph.D.


2016 - PhD., Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (MIPS), Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

Research Interests

  • 100% Detergent-free extraction of membrane proteins into native lipid-nanodiscs using synthetic polymers

  • Functional-reconstitution of membrane proteins into lipid-nanodiscs

  • High-resolution structural studies of peptides and proteins using NMR spectroscopy


  • Krishnarjuna B, Yamazaki T, Anantharamaiah GM and Ramamoorthy A (2021) A Nanodisc reconstitution of flavin mononucleotide binding domain of cytochrome-P450-reductase enables high-resolution NMR probing. ChemCommun (Camb) 57, 4819-4822.

  • Seow J, Das SC, Morales RAV, Ataide R, Krishnarjuna B, Silk M, Chalmers DK, Richards J, Anders RF, MacRaild CA, Norton RS (2021) Guiding the immune response to a conserved epitope in MSP2, an intrinsically disordered malaria vaccine candidate. Vaccines 9, 855. (Special Issue: Vaccines Development in Australia).

  • Bera S, Dong X, Krishnarjuna B, Raab S, Hales D, Ji W, Tang Y, Shimon L, Ramamoorthy A, Clemmer D, Wei G, Gazit E (2021) Solid-state packing dictates the unexpected solubility of aromatic peptides. Cell Rep Phys Sci 2, 100391.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Sunanda P, Villegas Moreno J, Csoti A, A V Morales R, Wai DCC, Panyi G, Prentis P, Norton RS (2021). A disulfide-stabilised helical hairpin fold in acrorhagin I: an emerging structural motif in peptide toxins. J Struct Biol 213,107692.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Ravula T and Ramamoorthy A (2020). Detergent-free extraction, reconstitution and characterization of membrane-anchored cytochrome b5 in native lipids. ChemCommun (Camb). 56, 6511-6514 (ChemComm Hot Articles).

  • Ong ST, Bajaj S, Tanner MR, Chang SC, Krishnarjuna B et al. (2020). Modulation of lymphocyte potassium channel KV1.3 by membrane-penetrating, joint targeting immunomodulatory plant defensin. ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 3, 720-736 (ACS Editor’s choice, Journal Front Cover).

  • Chittoor B, Krishnarjuna B, Morales RAV and Norton RS (2020). The single disulfide directed β-hairpin fold. Role of disulfide bond in folding and effect of an additional disulfide bond on stability. Aust J Chem 73, 312-320.

  • Elnahriry KA, Wai DCC, Krishnarjuna B, Badawy NN, Chittoor B, MacRaild CA, Williams-Noonan BJ, Surm JM, Chalmers DK, Zhang AH, Peigneur S, Mobli M, Tytgat J, Prentis P, Norton RS (2019). Structural and functional characterization of a novel peptide from the Australian sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Toxicon 168, 104-112.

  • Singh M, Kishore A, Maity D, Sunanda P, Krishnarjuna B, Vappala, S, Raghothama S, Kenyon L, Pal D and Sarma JD (2019) A proline insertion-deletion in the spike glycoprotein fusion peptide of mouse hepatitis virus strongly alters neuropathology. J Biol Chem 294, 8064-8087.

  • Akter M, Drinkwater N, Devine SM, Drew SC, Krishnarjuna B, Debono CO, Wang G, Scanlon MJ, Scammelles PJ, McGowan S, MacRaild CA and Norton RS (2019). Identification of the binding site of apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) inhibitors using a paramagnetic probe. ChemMedChem 14, 603-612.

  • Sunanda P, Krishnarjuna B, Peigneur S, Mitchell ML, Estrada R, Villegas Moreno J, Pennington MW, Tytgat J and Norton RS (2018). Identification, chemical synthesis, structure, and function of a new KV1 channel blocking peptide from Oulactis sp. Pep Sci 110, e24073 (Journal Front Cover).

  • Krishnarjuna B, Sugiki T, Morales RAV, Seow J, Fujiwara T, Wilde KL, Norton RS and MacRaild CA (2018). Transient antibody-antigen interactions mediate the strain-specific recognition of a conserved malaria epitope. Nature Commun Biol 1, 58.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Villegas Moreno J, Mitchell ML, Csoti A, Peigneur S, Amero C, Pennington MW, Tytgat J, Panyi G and Norton RS (2018). Synthesis, folding, structure and activity of a predicted peptide from the sea anemone Oulactis sp. with an ShKT fold. Toxicon 150, 5-59.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Chandra K, and Atreya HS (2018). Accelerating NMR based structural studies of proteins by combining amino acid selective unlabeling with fast NMR methods. Magnetochemistry 4, 2 (Special Issue: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy).

  • Krishnarjuna B, MacRaild CA, Sunanda P, Morales RAV, Peigneur S, Macrander J, Yu HH, Daly M, Raghothama S, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Tytgat J, Pennington MW, Norton RS (2017). Structure, folding and stability of a minimal homologue from Anemonia sulcata of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK. Peptides 99, 169-178.

  • Sharma G, Moria N, Williams M, Krishnarjuna B, Pouton CW (2017) Purification and characterization of adenovirus core protein VII: a histone-like protein that is critical for adenovirus core formation. J Gen Virol 98, 1785-1794.

  • Das SC, Morales RAV, Seow J, Krishnarjuna B, Dissanayake R, Anders RF, MacRaild CA, Norton RS (2017). Lipid interactions modulate the structural and antigenic properties of the C-terminal domain of the malaria antigen merozoite surface protein 2. FEBS J 284, 2649-2662 (Special Issue: Malaria).

  • Chittoor B, Krishnarjuna B, Morales RAV, MacRaild CA, Sadek M, Leung EWW, Robinson SD, Pennington MW, Norton RS (2017). The single disulfide directed β‑hairpin fold. Dynamics, stability, and engineering. Biochemistry 56, 2455-2466.

  • Seow J, Morales RAV, MacRaild CA, Krishnarjuna B, McGowan S, Dingjan T, Jaipuria G, Rouet R, Wilde KL, Atreya HS, Richards JS, Anders RF, Christ D, Drinkwater N, and Norton RS (2017) Structure and characterization of a key epitope in the conserved C‑terminal domain of the malaria vaccine candidate MSP2. J Mol Biol 429, 836-846.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Lim SS, Devine SM, Debono CO, Lam R, Chandrashekaran IR, Jaipuria G, Yagi H, Atreya HS, Scanlon MJ, MacRaild CA, Scammells PJ and Norton RS (2016) Solution NMR characterization of apical membrane antigen 1 and small molecule interactions as a basis for designing new antimalarials. J Mol Recognit 29, 281-291.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Andrew D, MacRaild CA, Morales RAV, Beeson JG, Anders RF, Richards JS and Norton RS (2016) Strain transcending immune response generated by chimeras of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 2. Sci Rep (Nature) 6, 20613 (12 pages).

  • Morales RAV, MacRaild CA, Seow J, Krishnarjuna B, Drinkwater N, Rouet R, Anders RF, Christ D, McGowan S and Norton RS (2015) Structural basis for epitope masking and strain specificity of a conserved epitope in an intrinsically disordered malaria vaccine candidate. Sci Rep (Nature) 5, 10103 (10 pages).

  • MacRaild CA, Zachrdla M, Andrew D, Krishnarjuna B, Nováček J, Žídek L, Sklená? V, Richards JS, Beeson JG, Anders RF and Norton RS (2015) Conformational dynamics and antigenicity in the disordered malaria antigen merozoite surface protein 2. PLoS ONE 10, e0119899 (18 pages).

  • Lim SS, Yang W, Krishnarjuna B, Kannan Sivaraman K, Chandrashekaran IR, Kass I, MacRaild CA, Devine SM, Debono CO, Anders RF, Scanlon MJ, Scammells PJ, Scanlon MJ, Norton RS and McGowan S (2014) Structure and dynamics of apical membrane antigen 1 from Plasmodium falciparum FVO. Biochemistry 53, 7310-7320.

  • Narayan P, Krishnarjuna B, Vishwanathan V, Jagadeesh Kumar D, Babu S, Ramanathan KV, Easwaran KRK, Nagendra HG, Raghothama S (2013) Does aluminium bind to histidine? An NMR investigation of amyloid β12 and amyloid β16 fragments. Chem Biol Drug Des 82, 48-59.

  • Kaushik S, Krishnarjuna B, Raghothama S, Aggarwal S, Raghunathan V, Ganjiwale A (2012) Theoretical and in vitro studies of a C-terminal peptide from PGKC of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol 185, 27-35.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Ganjiwale A, Manjappara U, Raghothama S (2011) NMR Structure implications of enhanced efficacy of obestatin fragment analogs. Int J Pept Res Ther 17, 259-270.

  • Krishnarjuna B, Jaipuria G, Thakur A, D'Silva P, Atreya HS (2011) Amino acid selective unlabeling for sequence-specific resonance assignments in proteins. J Biomol NMR 49, 39-51.

  • Swain M, Thirupathi R, Krishnarjuna B, Eaton EM, Kibbey MM, Rosenzweig SA, Atreya HS (2010) Spontaneous and reversible self-assembly of a polypeptide fragment of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 into fluorescent nanotubular structures. ChemCommun (Camb) 46, 216-218.

Book chapters

1) Jaipuria G, Krishnarjuna B, Mondal S, Dubey A, Atreya HS (2012) Amino acid selective labeling and unlabeling for protein resonance assignments. Isotope labeling in Biomolecular NMR. Springer Netherlands, 992, 95-118.