Thirupathi Ravula, Ph.D.


2014 - Nanotechnology, Ph.D., Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaloru, India

2008 - Chemistry, M.Sc., Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India

Research Project

Development of new polymer nanodisc: Nanodiscs are disc-shaped lipid bilayers surrounded by an amphiphilic protein and are inspired from high-density lipoproteins. Nanodiscs provide a near native-like lipid membrane environment and enables the study of membrane proteins in their active form. Recent advances in nanodiscs technology have allowed nanodiscs to be formed by scaffold proteins, amphiphilic peptide or polymers. The hydrolyzed form of styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer was the first polymer shown to form nanodiscs (styrene-maleic acid lipoparticles called as SMALPs), are versatile and promising tools in biophysical and biomedical research that can offer a detergent-free solubilization of membrane proteins maintaining their native lipid environment. SMALPs have several disadvantages which limits their applications. In this lab we are developing new polymers that can form nanodisc for various applications.


33. Ravula, T.; Ramamoorthy, A., Synthesis, Characterization, and Nanodisc formation of Non-ionic Polymers. bioRxiv 2021.

32. Zhang, R.; Hong, Y. L.; Ravula, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Ramamoorthy, A., High-resolution proton-detected MAS experiments on self- assembled diphenylalanine nanotubes enabled by fast MAS and high magnetic field. J Magn Reson 2020, 313, 106717.

31. Ravula, T.; Sahoo, B. R.; Dai, X. F.; Ramamoorthy, A., Natural-abundance(17)O NMR spectroscopy of magnetically aligned lipid nanodiscs. Chemical Communications 2020, 56, 9998-10001.

30. Ravula, T.; Kim, J.; Lee, D. K.; Ramamoorthy, A., Magnetic Alignment of Polymer Nanodiscs Probed by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy. Langmuir 2020, 36, 1258-1265.

29. Krishnarjuna, B.; Ravula, T.; Ramamoorthy, A., Detergent-free extraction, reconstitution and characterization of membrane-anchored cytochrome-b5 in native lipids. Chem Commun (Camb) 2020, 56, 6511-6514.

28. Bai, J.; Wang, J.; Ravula, T.; Im, S. C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Waskell, L.; Ramamoorthy, A., Expression, purification, and functional reconstitution of (19)F-labeled cytochrome b5 in peptide nanodiscs for NMR studies. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2020, 1862, 183194.

27. Ravula, T.; Ramamoorthy, A., Magnetic Alignment of Polymer Macro-Nanodiscs Enables Residual-Dipolar-Coupling-Based High- Resolution Structural Studies by NMR Spectroscopy. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019, 58, 14925-14928. (Co-corresponding author)

26. Ravula, T.; Hardin, N. Z.; Ramamoorthy, A., Polymer nanodiscs: Advantages and limitations. Chem Phys Lipids 2019, 219, 45-49.

25. Mahajan, M.; Ravula, T.; Prade, E.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Ramamoorthy, A., Probing membrane enhanced protein-protein interactions in a minimal redox complex of cytochrome-P450 and P450-reductase. Chem Commun (Camb) 2019, 55, 5777-5780.

24. Hardin, N. Z.; Ravula, T.; Di Mauro, G.; Ramamoorthy, A., Hydrophobic Functionalization of Polyacrylic Acid as a Versatile Platform for the Development of Polymer Lipid Nanodisks. Small 2019, 15, 1804813.

23. Hardin, N. Z.; Kocman, V.; Di Mauro, G. M.; Ravula, T.; Ramamoorthy, A., Metal-Chelated Polymer Nanodiscs for NMR Studies. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019, 58, 17246-17250.

22. Sumangala, N.; Mahajan, M.; Ravula, T.; Ramamoorthy, A., Cytochrome-P450's Spin State Influences its Binding Affinity to its Redox Partner. Biophysical Journal 2018, 114, 425a-425a.

21. Ravula, T.; Ishikuro, D.; Kodera, N.; Ando, T.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Ramamoorthy, A., Real-Time Monitoring of Lipid Exchange via Fusion of Peptide Based Lipid-Nanodiscs. Chemistry of Materials 2018, 30, 3204-3207.

20. Ravula, T.; Hardin, N. Z.; Ramadugu, S. K.; Cox, S. J.; Ramamoorthy, A., Formation of pH-Resistant Monodispersed Polymer-Lipid Nanodiscs. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018, 57, 1342-1345.

19. Ravula, T.; Hardin, N. Z.; Di Mauro, G. M.; Ramamoorthy, A., Styrene maleic acid derivates to enhance the applications of bio-inspired polymer based lipid-nanodiscs. Eur Polym J 2018, 108, 597-602.

18. Ravula, T.; Hardin, N. Z.; Bai, J.; Im, S. C.; Waskell, L.; Ramamoorthy, A., Effect of polymer charge on functional reconstitution of membrane proteins in polymer nanodiscs. Chem Commun (Camb) 2018, 54, 9615-9618.

17. Barnaba, C.; Sahoo, B. R.; Ravula, T.; Medina-Meza, I. G.; Im, S. C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Waskell, L.; Ramamoorthy, A., Cytochrome-P450-Induced Ordering of Microsomal Membranes Modulates Affinity for Drugs. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018, 57, 3391-3395.

16. Barnaba, C.; Ravula, T.; Medina-Meza, I. G.; Im, S. C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Waskell, L.; Ramamoorthy, A., Lipid-exchange in nanodiscs discloses membrane boundaries of cytochrome-P450 reductase. Chem Commun (Camb) 2018, 54, 6336-6339.

15. Yasuhara, K.; Arakida, J.; Ravula, T.; Ramadugu, S. K.; Sahoo, B.; Kikuchi, J. I.; Ramamoorthy, A., Spontaneous Lipid Nanodisc Fomation by Amphiphilic Polymethacrylate Copolymers. J Am Chem Soc 2017, 139, 18657-18663.

14. Ravula, T.; Ramadugu, S. K.; Di Mauro, G.; Ramamoorthy, A., Bioinspired, Size-Tunable Self-Assembly of Polymer-Lipid Bilayer Nanodiscs. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2017, 56, 11466-11470.

13. Ravula, T.; Hardin, N. Z.; Ramadugu, S. K.; Ramamoorthy, A., pH Tunable and Divalent Metal Ion Tolerant Polymer Lipid Nanodiscs. Langmuir 2017, 33, 10655-10662.

12. Ravula, T.; Barnaba, C.; Mahajan, M.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Im, S. C.; Waskell, L.; Ramamoorthy, A., Membrane environment drives cytochrome P450's spin transition and its interaction with cytochrome b5. Chem Commun (Camb) 2017, 53, 12798-12801.

11. Mondal, S.; Ravula,T.; Rao, L. P.; Atreya, H. S., Unraveling the dynamic nature of protein-graphene oxide interactions. Rsc Advances 2016, 6, 52539-52548.

10. Ravula,T.; Reddy, Y. J.; Prabhakaran, E. N.; Atreya, H. S., Organic fragments from graphene oxide: Isolation, characterization and solvent effects. Journal of Chemical Sciences 2014, 126, 541-545.

9. Ravula, T.; Prabhakaran, E. N., Estimation of the 2.05 helix type i→ i hydrogen bond energy at Aib-Oxa motif: an isodesmic approach. Tetrahedron Letters 2014, 55, 3418-3421.

8. Pudakalakatti, S. M.; Chandra, K.; Ravula, T.; Atreya, H. S., Rapid characterization of molecular diffusion by NMR spectroscopy. Chemistry 2014, 20, 15719-22.

7. Mondal, S.; Ravula, T.; Atreya, H. S., Carbon quantum dots as a macromolecular crowder. RSC Advances 2014, 5, 4489-4492.

6. Reddy, D. N.; Ravula, T; Tumminakatti, S.; Prabhakaran, E. N., A method for stabilizing the cis prolyl peptide bond: influence of an unusual n→ π interaction in 1, 3-oxazine and 1, 3-thiazine containing peptidomimetics. Tetrahedron Letters 2012, 53, 4413-4417.

5. Ravula, T.; Sravanthi, S.; Kumar, A.; Prabhakaran, E. N., Protein-Protein Complexes. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science 2011, 91, 497-520.

4. Ravula, T.; Prabhakaran, E. N., Self-assembled microtubes and rhodamine 6G functionalized Raman-active gold microrods from 1- hydroxybenzotriazole. Journal of Chemical Sciences 2011, 123, 247-254.

3. Reddy, D. N.; Ravula. T.; Prabhakaran, E. N., Accessing the disallowed conformations of peptides employing amide-to-imidate modification. Chem Commun (Camb) 2011, 47, 9417-9.

2. Ravula, T.; Reddy, D. N.; Brinda, S.; Prabhakaran, E. N., N-{1-[(3-Bromopropyl)aminocarbonyl]ethyl}-2-(2- nitrobenzenesulfonamido)propionamide. Acta Crystallogr E 2009, 65, O2308.

1. Swain, M.; Ravula, T.; Krishnarjuna, B.; Eaton, E. M.; Kibbey, M. M.; Rosenzweig, S. A.; Atreya, H. S., Spontaneous and reversible self-assembly of a polypeptide fragment of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 into fluorescent nanotubular structures. Chemical communications 2009, 46, 216-218.


  • A Ramamoorthy, T Ravula, NZ Hardin, Lipid nanodisc formation by polymers having a pendant hydrophobic group, US Patent App. 16/893,772 (2020).

  • A Ramamoorthy, T Ravula, B Sahoo, K Yasuhara, J Arakida, J Kikuchi, Lipid Nanodisc formation by Acryloyl-based copolymers, US Patent App. 16/386,804 (2019).

  • A Ramamoorthy, T Ravula, NZ Hardin, SJ Cox, Polymer-Based Lipid Nanodiscs And Macrodiscs, US Patent App. 16/198,397 (2019).